A short list of bibliographical and webpage references related to grid connected inverters and their control.


M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, “Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1281—1291, 2005.

An article on how to expand the work of this lab, an inverter with an inductor-based filter (“L”), by using instead an inductor-capacitor-inductor (“LCL”) filter. This filter is more complex, but provides more attenuation of the current ripples. The article tackles both the choice of the LCL values and the adaptation of the control for this filter.


Qing-Chang Zhong, Thomas Hornik, “Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration”, Wiley IEEE Press, 2013 (available at CS Rennes library as 621.310 42 ZHO).

Examples of current controllers, with different levels of robustness and theoretical difficulty (from a simple PI to H∞). It also discusses grid synchronization (various PLLs).


Sigurd Skogestad, “Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning”, Journal of Process Control, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 291–309, 2003.

One way to set the parameters of a PI controller (gain, integration time) directly from the parameters of the plant model (gain, time constants, lag). This is an alternative method to the tuning in the frequency domain (using Bode diagrams).

Grid codes and standards


National Grid Electricity Transmission “The Grid Code - Connection Conditions - CC.6.3.15 Fault Ride Through”, Issue 5 Revision 21, p 30 of 95, March 2017

This section the Grid Code of National Grid (applicable in the UK) sets out the fault ride through requirements on generating units. In particular, “Each Generating Unit [and similar units] shall remain transiently stable and connected to the System without tripping […], for a close-up solid three-phase short circuit fault or any unbalanced short circuit fault on the Onshore Transmission System […] for a total fault clearance time of up to 140 ms.”